Nuitka 将Python源代码编译为二进制单文件可执行程序

创建虚拟环境,方便打包

python -m venv Nuitka1
cd Nuitka1
Scripts\activate

安装依赖

pip install Nuitka
pip install zstandard

安装gcc编译器

https://winlibs.com/
下载最新的就行,太老的版本反而用不了

开始打包

nuitka --onefile --standalone --remove-output --mingw64 main.py

打包后的成品是压缩过的,大约只有8MB左右,还是相当不错的

Nuitka用法

λ nuitka -h
Usage: __main__.py [--module] [--run] [options] main_module.py

Options:
  --version             show program's version number and exit
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --module              Create an extension module executable instead of a program. Defaults to off.
  --standalone          Enable standalone mode for output. This allows you to transfer the created binary to other machines without it using an existing Python
                        installation. This also means it will become big. It implies these option: "--follow-imports". You may also want to use "--python-
                        flag=no_site" to avoid the "site.py" module, which can save a lot of code dependencies. Defaults to off.
  --onefile             On top of standalone mode, enable onefile mode. This means not a folder, but a compressed executable is created and used. Defaults to off.
  --python-arch=PYTHON_ARCH
                        Architecture of Python to use. One of "x86" or "x86_64". Defaults to what you run Nuitka with (currently "x86_64").
  --python-debug        Use debug version or not. Default uses what you are using to run Nuitka, most likely a non-debug version.
  --python-flag=FLAG    Python flags to use. Default is what you are using to run Nuitka, this enforces a specific mode. These are options that also exist to standard
                        Python executable. Currently supported: "-S" (alias "no_site"), "static_hashes" (do not use hash randomization), "no_warnings" (do not give
                        Python runtime warnings), "-O" (alias "no_asserts"), "no_docstrings" (do not use docstrings), and "-m".  Default empty.
  --python-for-scons=PATH
                        If using Python3.3 or Python3.4, provide the path of a Python binary to use for Scons. Otherwise Nuitka can use what you run Nuitka with or a
                        "scons" binary that is found in PATH, or a Python installation from Windows registry.
  --warn-implicit-exceptions
                        Enable warnings for implicit exceptions detected at compile time.
  --warn-unusual-code   Enable warnings for unusual code detected at compile time.
  --assume-yes-for-downloads
                        Allow Nuitka to download external code if necessary, e.g. dependency walker, ccache, and even gcc on Windows. To disable, redirect input from
                        nul device, e.g. "</dev/null" or "<NUL:". Default is to prompt.

  Control the inclusion of modules and packages in result.:
    --include-package=PACKAGE
                        Include a whole package. Give as a Python namespace, e.g. "some_package.sub_package" and Nuitka will then find it and include it and all the
                        modules found below that disk location in the binary or extension module it creates, and make it available for import by the code. To avoid
                        unwanted sub packages, e.g. tests you can e.g. do this "--nofollow-import-to=*.tests". Default empty.
    --include-module=MODULE
                        Include a single module. Give as a Python namespace, e.g. "some_package.some_module" and Nuitka will then find it and include it in the binary
                        or extension module it creates, and make it available for import by the code. Default empty.
    --include-plugin-directory=MODULE/PACKAGE
                        Include the content of that directory, no matter if it's used by the given main program in a visible form. Overrides all other inclusion
                        options. Can be given multiple times. Default empty.
    --include-plugin-files=PATTERN
                        Include into files matching the PATTERN. Overrides all other follow options. Can be given multiple times. Default empty.
    --prefer-source-code
                        For already compiled extension modules, where there is both a source file and an extension module, normally the extension module is used, but
                        it should be better to compile the module from available source code for best performance. If not desired, there is --no-prefer-source-code to
                        disable warnings about it. Default off.

  Control the following into imported modules:
    --follow-stdlib     Also descend into imported modules from standard library. This will increase the compilation time by a lot. Defaults to off.
    --nofollow-imports  When --nofollow-imports is used, do not descend into any imported modules at all, overrides all other inclusion options. Defaults to off.
    --follow-imports    When --follow-imports is used, attempt to descend into all imported modules. Defaults to off.
    --follow-import-to=MODULE/PACKAGE
                        Follow to that module if used, or if a package, to the whole package. Can be given multiple times. Default empty.
    --nofollow-import-to=MODULE/PACKAGE
                        Do not follow to that module name even if used, or if a package name, to the whole package in any case, overrides all other options. Can be
                        given multiple times. Default empty.

  Data files for standalone/onefile mode:
    --include-package-data=PACKAGE
                        Include data files of the given package name. Can use patterns. By default Nuitka does not unless hard coded and vital for operation of a
                        package. This will include all non-DLL, non-extension modules in the distribution. Default empty.
    --include-data-file=DESC
                        Include data files by filenames in the distribution. There are many allowed forms. With '--include-data-
                        file=/path/to/file/*.txt=folder_name/some.txt' it will copy a single file and complain if it's multiple. With '--include-data-
                        file=/path/to/files/*.txt=folder_name/' it will put all matching files into that folder. For recursive copy there is a form with 3 values that
                        '--include-data-file=/path/to/scan=folder_name=**/*.txt' that will preserve directory structure. Default empty.
    --include-data-dir=DIRECTORY
                        Include data files from complete directory in the distribution. This is recursive. Check '--include-data-file' with patterns if you want non-
                        recursive inclusion. An example would be '--include-data-dir=/path/somedir=data/somedir' for plain copy, of the whole directory. All files are
                        copied, if you want to exclude files you need to remove them beforehand. Default empty.

  Immediate execution after compilation:
    --run               Execute immediately the created binary (or import the compiled module). Defaults to off.
    --debugger, --gdb   Execute inside a debugger, e.g. "gdb" or "lldb" to automatically get a stack trace. Defaults to off.
    --execute-with-pythonpath
                        When immediately executing the created binary (--execute), don't reset PYTHONPATH. When all modules are successfully included, you ought to
                        not need PYTHONPATH anymore.

  Dump options for internal tree:
    --xml               Dump the final result of optimization as XML, then exit.

  Code generation choices:
    --full-compat       Enforce absolute compatibility with CPython. Do not even allow minor deviations from CPython behavior, e.g. not having better tracebacks or
                        exception messages which are not really incompatible, but only different. This is intended for tests only and should not be used for normal
                        use.
    --file-reference-choice=MODE
                        Select what value "__file__" is going to be. With "runtime" (default for standalone binary mode and module mode), the created binaries and
                        modules, use the location of themselves to deduct the value of "__file__". Included packages pretend to be in directories below that location.
                        This allows you to include data files in deployments. If you merely seek acceleration, it's better for you to use the "original" value, where
                        the source files location will be used. With "frozen" a notation "<frozen module_name>" is used. For compatibility reasons, the "__file__"
                        value will always have ".py" suffix independent of what it really is.

  Output choices:
    -o FILENAME         Specify how the executable should be named. For extension modules there is no choice, also not for standalone mode and using it will be an
                        error. This may include path information that needs to exist though. Defaults to '<program_name>' on this platform. .exe
    --output-dir=DIRECTORY
                        Specify where intermediate and final output files should be put. The DIRECTORY will be populated with C files, object files, etc. Defaults to
                        current directory.
    --remove-output     Removes the build directory after producing the module or exe file. Defaults to off.
    --no-pyi-file       Do not create a ".pyi" file for extension modules created by Nuitka. This is used to detect implicit imports. Defaults to off.

  Debug features:
    --debug             Executing all self checks possible to find errors in Nuitka, do not use for production. Defaults to off.
    --unstripped        Keep debug info in the resulting object file for better debugger interaction. Defaults to off.
    --profile           Enable vmprof based profiling of time spent. Not working currently. Defaults to off.
    --internal-graph    Create graph of optimization process internals, do not use for whole programs, but only for small test cases. Defaults to off.
    --trace-execution   Traced execution output, output the line of code before executing it. Defaults to off.
    --recompile-c-only  This is not incremental compilation, but for Nuitka development only. Takes existing files and simply compile them as C again. Allows
                        compiling edited C files for quick debugging changes to the generated source, e.g. to see if code is passed by, values output, etc, Defaults
                        to off. Depends on compiling Python source to determine which files it should look at.
    --generate-c-only   Generate only C source code, and do not compile it to binary or module. This is for debugging and code coverage analysis that doesn't waste
                        CPU. Defaults to off. Do not think you can use this directly.
    --experimental=FLAG
                        Use features declared as 'experimental'. May have no effect if no experimental features are present in the code. Uses secret tags (check
                        source) per experimented feature.
    --low-memory        Attempt to use less memory, by forking less C compilation jobs and using options that use less memory. For use on embedded machines. Use this
                        in case of out of memory problems. Defaults to off.
    --disable-dll-dependency-cache
                        Disable the dependency walker cache. Will result in much longer times to create the distribution folder, but might be used in case the cache
                        is suspect to cause errors.
    --force-dll-dependency-cache-update
                        For an update of the dependency walker cache. Will result in much longer times to create the distribution folder, but might be used in case
                        the cache is suspect to cause errors or known to need an update.

  Backend C compiler choice:
    --clang             Enforce the use of clang. On Windows this requires a working Visual Studio version to piggy back on. Defaults to off.
    --mingw64           Enforce the use of MinGW64 on Windows. Defaults to off.
    --msvc=MSVC_VERSION
                        Enforce the use of specific MSVC version on Windows. Allowed values are e.g. "14.2" (MSVC 2019), specify an illegal value for a list of
                        installed compilers, or use "latest". Notice that only latest MSVC is really supported, and you can use "latest" to enforce that.  Defaults to
                        MSVC on Windows being used if installed, otherwise MinGW64.
    -j N, --jobs=N      Specify the allowed number of parallel C compiler jobs. Defaults to the system CPU count.
    --lto=choice        Use link time optimizations (MSVC, gcc, clang). Allowed values are "yes", "no", and "auto" (when it's known to work). Defaults to "auto".
    --static-libpython=choice
                        Use static link library of Python. Allowed values are "yes", "no", and "auto" (when it's known to work). Defaults to "auto".
    --disable-ccache    Do not attempt to use ccache (gcc, clang, etc.) or clcache (MSVC, clangcl).

  PGO compilation choices:
    --pgo               Enables C level profile guided optimization (PGO), by executing a dedicated build first for a profiling run, and then using the result to
                        feedback into the C compilation. Note: This is experimental and not working with standalone modes of Nuitka yet. Defaults to off.
    --pgo-args=PGO_ARGS
                        Arguments to be passed in case of profile guided optimization. These are passed to the special built executable during the PGO profiling run.
                        Default empty.
    --pgo-executable=PGO_EXECUTABLE
                        Command to execute when collecting profile information. Use this only, if you need to launch it through a script that prepares it to run.
                        Default use created program.

  Tracing features:
    --quiet             Disable all information outputs, but show warnings. Defaults to off.
    --show-scons        Operate Scons in non-quiet mode, showing the executed commands. Defaults to off.
    --show-progress     Provide progress information and statistics. Defaults to off.
    --no-progressbar    Disable progress bar outputs (if tqdm is installed). Defaults to off.
    --show-memory       Provide memory information and statistics. Defaults to off.
    --show-modules      Provide information for included modules and DLLs Defaults to off.
    --show-modules-output=PATH
                        Where to output --show-modules, should be a filename. Default is standard output.
    --report=COMPILATION_REPORT_FILENAME
                        Report module inclusion in an XML output file. Default is off.
    --verbose           Output details of actions taken, esp. in optimizations. Can become a lot. Defaults to off.
    --verbose-output=PATH
                        Where to output --verbose, should be a filename. Default is standard output.

  Windows specific controls:
    --windows-disable-console
                        When compiling for Windows, disable the console window. Defaults to off.
    --windows-icon-from-ico=ICON_PATH
                        Add executable icon. Can be given multiple times for different resolutions or files with multiple icons inside. In the later case, you may
                        also suffix with #<n> where n is an integer index starting from 1, specifying a specific icon to be included, and all others to be ignored.
    --windows-icon-from-exe=ICON_EXE_PATH
                        Copy executable icons from this existing executable (Windows only).
    --onefile-windows-splash-screen-image=SPLASH_SCREEN_IMAGE
                        When compiling for Windows and onefile, show this while loading the application. Defaults to off.
    --windows-uac-admin
                        Request Windows User Control, to grant admin rights on execution. (Windows only). Defaults to off.
    --windows-uac-uiaccess
                        Request Windows User Control, to enforce running from a few folders only, remote desktop access. (Windows only). Defaults to off.
    --windows-company-name=WINDOWS_COMPANY_NAME
                        Name of the company to use in Windows Version information.  One of file or product version is required, when a version resource needs to be
                        added, e.g. to specify product name, or company name. Defaults to unused.
    --windows-product-name=WINDOWS_PRODUCT_NAME
                        Name of the product to use in Windows Version information. Defaults to base filename of the binary.
    --windows-file-version=WINDOWS_FILE_VERSION
                        File version to use in Windows Version information. Must be a sequence of up to 4 numbers, e.g. 1.0.0.0, only this format is allowed. One of
                        file or product version is required, when a version resource needs to be added, e.g. to specify product name, or company name. Defaults to
                        unused.
    --windows-product-version=WINDOWS_PRODUCT_VERSION
                        Product version to use in Windows Version information. Must be a sequence of up to 4 numbers, e.g. 1.0.0.0, only this format is allowed. One
                        of file or product version is required, when a version resource needs to be added, e.g. to specify product name, or company name. Defaults to
                        unused.
    --windows-file-description=WINDOWS_FILE_DESCRIPTION
                        Description of the file use in Windows Version information.  One of file or product version is required, when a version resource needs to be
                        added, e.g. to specify product name, or company name. Defaults to nonsense.
    --windows-onefile-tempdir-spec=ONEFILE_TEMPDIR_SPEC
                        Use this as a temporary folder. Defaults to '%TEMP%\onefile_%PID%_%TIME%', i.e. system temporary directory.
    --windows-force-stdout-spec=WINDOWS_FORCE_STDOUT_SPEC
                        Force standard output of the program to go to this location. Useful for programs with disabled console and programs using the Windows Services
                        Plugin of Nuitka. Defaults to not active, use e.g. '%PROGRAM%.out.txt', i.e. file near your program.
    --windows-force-stderr-spec=WINDOWS_FORCE_STDERR_SPEC
                        Force standard error of the program to go to this location. Useful for programs with disabled console and programs using the Windows Services
                        Plugin of Nuitka. Defaults to not active, use e.g. '%PROGRAM%.err.txt', i.e. file near your program.

  macOS specific controls:
    --macos-onefile-icon=ICON_PATH
                        Add executable icon for binary to use. Can be given only one time. Defaults to Python icon if available.
    --macos-disable-console
                        When compiling for macOS, disable the console window and create a GUI application. Defaults to off.
    --macos-create-app-bundle
                        When compiling for macOS, create a bundle rather than a plain binary application. Currently experimental and incomplete. Currently this is the
                        only way to unlock disabling of console.Defaults to off.
    --macos-signed-app-name=MACOS_SIGNED_APP_NAME
                        Name of the application to use for macOS signing. Follow com.yourcompany.appname naming results for best results, as these have to be globally
                        unique, and will grant protected API accesses.
    --macos-app-name=MACOS_APP_NAME
                        Name of the product to use in macOS bundle information. Defaults to base filename of the binary.
    --macos-app-version=MACOS_APP_VERSION
                        Product version to use in macOS bundle information. Defaults to 1.0 if not given.

  Linux specific controls:
    --linux-onefile-icon=ICON_PATH
                        Add executable icon for onefile binary to use. Can be given only one time. Defaults to Python icon if available.

  Plugin control:
    --enable-plugin=PLUGIN_NAME, --plugin-enable=PLUGIN_NAME
                        Enabled plugins. Must be plug-in names. Use --plugin-list to query the full list and exit. Default empty.
    --disable-plugin=PLUGIN_NAME, --plugin-disable=PLUGIN_NAME
                        Disabled plugins. Must be plug-in names. Use --plugin-list to query the full list and exit. Default empty.
    --plugin-no-detection
                        Plugins can detect if they might be used, and the you can disable the warning via "--disable-plugin=plugin-that-warned", or you can use this
                        option to disable the mechanism entirely, which also speeds up compilation slightly of course as this detection code is run in vain once you
                        are certain of which plugins to use. Defaults to off.
    --plugin-list       Show list of all available plugins and exit. Defaults to off.
    --user-plugin=PATH  The file name of user plugin. Can be given multiple times. Default empty.
    --persist-source-changes
                        Write source changes to original Python files. Use with care. May need permissions, best for use in a virtualenv to debug if plugin code
                        changes work with standard Python or to benefit from bloat removal even with pure Python. Default False.

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